The development of a Social Intelligence System based on artificial intelligence is one of the cutting edge technologies in Assistive Robotics. Such systems need to create an empathic interaction with the users; therefore, it os required to include an Emotion Recognition (ER) framework which has to run, in near real-time, together with several other intelligent services. Most of the low-cost commercial robots, however, although more accessible by users and healthcare facilities, have to balance costs and effectiveness, resulting in under-performing hardware in terms of memory and processing unit. This aspect makes the design of the systems challenging, requiring a trade-off between the accuracy and the complexity of the adopted models. This paper proposes a compact and robust service for Assistive Robotics, called Lightweight EMotion recognitiON (LEMON), which uses image processing, Computer Vision and Deep Learning (DL) algorithms to recognize facial expressions. Specifically, the proposed DL model is based on Residual Convolutional Neural Networks with the combination of Dilated and Standard Convolution Layers. The first remarkable result is the few numbers (i.e., 1.6 Million) of parameters characterizing our model. In addition, Dilated Convolutions expand receptive fields exponentially with preserving resolution, less computation and memory cost to recognize the distinction among facial expressions by capturing the displacement of the pixels. Finally, to reduce the dying ReLU problem and improve the stability of the model, we apply an Exponential Linear Unit (ELU) activation function in the initial layers of the model. We have performed training and evaluation (via one- and five-fold cross validation) of the model with five datasets available in the community and one mixed dataset created by taking samples from all of them. With respect to the other approaches, our model achieves comparable results with a significant reduction in terms of the number of parameters.

LEMON: A Lightweight Facial Emotion Recognition System for Assistive Robotics Based on Dilated Residual Convolutional Neural Networks

RAMI REDDY DEVARAM;Misael Mongiovì;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The development of a Social Intelligence System based on artificial intelligence is one of the cutting edge technologies in Assistive Robotics. Such systems need to create an empathic interaction with the users; therefore, it os required to include an Emotion Recognition (ER) framework which has to run, in near real-time, together with several other intelligent services. Most of the low-cost commercial robots, however, although more accessible by users and healthcare facilities, have to balance costs and effectiveness, resulting in under-performing hardware in terms of memory and processing unit. This aspect makes the design of the systems challenging, requiring a trade-off between the accuracy and the complexity of the adopted models. This paper proposes a compact and robust service for Assistive Robotics, called Lightweight EMotion recognitiON (LEMON), which uses image processing, Computer Vision and Deep Learning (DL) algorithms to recognize facial expressions. Specifically, the proposed DL model is based on Residual Convolutional Neural Networks with the combination of Dilated and Standard Convolution Layers. The first remarkable result is the few numbers (i.e., 1.6 Million) of parameters characterizing our model. In addition, Dilated Convolutions expand receptive fields exponentially with preserving resolution, less computation and memory cost to recognize the distinction among facial expressions by capturing the displacement of the pixels. Finally, to reduce the dying ReLU problem and improve the stability of the model, we apply an Exponential Linear Unit (ELU) activation function in the initial layers of the model. We have performed training and evaluation (via one- and five-fold cross validation) of the model with five datasets available in the community and one mixed dataset created by taking samples from all of them. With respect to the other approaches, our model achieves comparable results with a significant reduction in terms of the number of parameters.
2022
assistive robotics
computer vision
deep convolutional neural networks
emotion recognition
face recognition
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/608329
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