The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hormetic nutrition for enhancing stress resilience and overall human health have received much attention. Recently, the gut–brain axis has attracted prominent interest for preventing and therapeutically impacting neuropathologies and gastrointestinal diseases. Polyphenols and polyphenol-combined nanoparticles in synergy with probiotics have shown to improve gut bioavailability and blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, thus inhibiting the oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction and inflammation linked to gut dysbiosis and ultimately the onset and progression of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In accordance with hormesis, polyphenols display biphasic dose–response effects by activating at a low dose the Nrf2 pathway resulting in the upregulation of antioxidant vitagenes, as in the case of heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by hidrox® or curcumin and sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, microbiota dysfunction and neurotoxic damage. Importantly, modulation of the composition and function of the gut microbiota through polyphenols and/or probiotics enhances the abundance of beneficial bacteria and can prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. Interestingly, dysregulation of the Nrf2 pathway in the gut and the brain can exacerbate selective susceptibility under neuroinflammatory conditions to CNS disorders due to the high vulnerability of vagal sensory neurons to oxidative stress. Herein, we aimed to discuss hormetic nutrients, including polyphenols and/or probiotics, targeting the Nrf2 pathway and vitagenes for the development of promising neuroprotective and therapeutic strategies to suppress oxidative stress, inflammation and microbiota deregulation, and consequently improve cognitive performance and brain health. In this review, we also explore interactions of the gut–brain axis based on sophisticated and cutting-edge technologies for novel anti-neuroinflammatory approaches and personalized nutritional therapies.

Hormetic Nutrition and Redox Regulation in Gut–Brain Axis Disorders

Scuto M.;Rampulla F.;Reali G. M.;Spano S. M.;Trovato Salinaro A.;Calabrese V.
2024-01-01

Abstract

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hormetic nutrition for enhancing stress resilience and overall human health have received much attention. Recently, the gut–brain axis has attracted prominent interest for preventing and therapeutically impacting neuropathologies and gastrointestinal diseases. Polyphenols and polyphenol-combined nanoparticles in synergy with probiotics have shown to improve gut bioavailability and blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability, thus inhibiting the oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction and inflammation linked to gut dysbiosis and ultimately the onset and progression of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In accordance with hormesis, polyphenols display biphasic dose–response effects by activating at a low dose the Nrf2 pathway resulting in the upregulation of antioxidant vitagenes, as in the case of heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by hidrox® or curcumin and sirtuin-1 activated by resveratrol to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, microbiota dysfunction and neurotoxic damage. Importantly, modulation of the composition and function of the gut microbiota through polyphenols and/or probiotics enhances the abundance of beneficial bacteria and can prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. Interestingly, dysregulation of the Nrf2 pathway in the gut and the brain can exacerbate selective susceptibility under neuroinflammatory conditions to CNS disorders due to the high vulnerability of vagal sensory neurons to oxidative stress. Herein, we aimed to discuss hormetic nutrients, including polyphenols and/or probiotics, targeting the Nrf2 pathway and vitagenes for the development of promising neuroprotective and therapeutic strategies to suppress oxidative stress, inflammation and microbiota deregulation, and consequently improve cognitive performance and brain health. In this review, we also explore interactions of the gut–brain axis based on sophisticated and cutting-edge technologies for novel anti-neuroinflammatory approaches and personalized nutritional therapies.
2024
Gut–brain axis
hormesis
inflammation
neurological disorders
Nrf2 pathway
organoids
polyphenols
probiotics
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/611049
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