: Runs of homozygosity (ROHom) are contiguous stretches of homozygous regions of the genome. In contrast, runs of heterozygosity (ROHet) are heterozygosity-rich regions. The detection of these two types of genomic regions (ROHom and ROHet) is influenced by the parameters involved in their identification and the number of available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The present study aimed to test the effect of chip density in detecting ROHom and ROHet in the Italian Simmental cattle breed. A sample of 897 animals were genotyped at low-density (50k SNP; 397 individuals), medium-density (140k SNP; 348 individuals), or high-density (800k SNP; 152 individuals). The number of ROHom and ROHet per animal (nROHom and nROHet, respectively) and their average length were calculated. ROHom or ROHet shared by more than one animal and the number of times a particular SNP was inside a run were also computed (SNPROHom and SNPROHet). As the chip density increased, the nROHom increased, whereas their average length decreased. In contrast, the nROHet decreased and the average length increased as the chip density increased. The most repeated ROHom harbored no genes, whereas in the most repeated ROHet four genes (SNRPN, SNURF, UBE3A and ATP10A) previously associated with reproductive traits were found. Across the three datasets, 31 SNP, located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, and 37 SNP (located on BTA21) exceeded the 99th percentile in the distribution of the SNPROHom and SNPROHet, respectively. The genomic region on BTA6 mapped the SLIT2, PACRGL, and KCNIP4 genes, whereas 19 and 18 genes were mapped on BTA16 and BTA21, respectively. Interestingly, most of genes found through the ROHet analysis were previously reported to be related to health, reproduction, and fitness traits. The results of the present study confirm that the detection of ROHom is more reliable when the chip density increases, whereas the ROHet trend seems to be the opposite. Genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapped in the highlighted regions confirm that ROHet can be due to balancing selection, thus related to fitness traits, health, and reproduction, whereas ROHom are mainly involved in production traits. The results of the present study strengthened the usefulness of these parameters in analyzing the genomes of livestock and their biological meaning.

Effect of genotyping density on the detection of runs of homozygosity and heterozygosity in cattle

Criscione, Andrea;
2024-01-01

Abstract

: Runs of homozygosity (ROHom) are contiguous stretches of homozygous regions of the genome. In contrast, runs of heterozygosity (ROHet) are heterozygosity-rich regions. The detection of these two types of genomic regions (ROHom and ROHet) is influenced by the parameters involved in their identification and the number of available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The present study aimed to test the effect of chip density in detecting ROHom and ROHet in the Italian Simmental cattle breed. A sample of 897 animals were genotyped at low-density (50k SNP; 397 individuals), medium-density (140k SNP; 348 individuals), or high-density (800k SNP; 152 individuals). The number of ROHom and ROHet per animal (nROHom and nROHet, respectively) and their average length were calculated. ROHom or ROHet shared by more than one animal and the number of times a particular SNP was inside a run were also computed (SNPROHom and SNPROHet). As the chip density increased, the nROHom increased, whereas their average length decreased. In contrast, the nROHet decreased and the average length increased as the chip density increased. The most repeated ROHom harbored no genes, whereas in the most repeated ROHet four genes (SNRPN, SNURF, UBE3A and ATP10A) previously associated with reproductive traits were found. Across the three datasets, 31 SNP, located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, and 37 SNP (located on BTA21) exceeded the 99th percentile in the distribution of the SNPROHom and SNPROHet, respectively. The genomic region on BTA6 mapped the SLIT2, PACRGL, and KCNIP4 genes, whereas 19 and 18 genes were mapped on BTA16 and BTA21, respectively. Interestingly, most of genes found through the ROHet analysis were previously reported to be related to health, reproduction, and fitness traits. The results of the present study confirm that the detection of ROHom is more reliable when the chip density increases, whereas the ROHet trend seems to be the opposite. Genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapped in the highlighted regions confirm that ROHet can be due to balancing selection, thus related to fitness traits, health, and reproduction, whereas ROHom are mainly involved in production traits. The results of the present study strengthened the usefulness of these parameters in analyzing the genomes of livestock and their biological meaning.
2024
Simmental cattle
genomic regions
inbreeding
sensitivity analysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/611089
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