Purpose: Although COVID-19 anosmia is often transient, patients with persistent olfactory dysfunction (pOD) can experience refractory parosmia and diminished smell. This study evaluated four putative therapies for parosmia in patients with chronic COVID-19 olfactory impairment. Methods: After screening nasal endoscopy, 85 patients (49 female, 58%) with pOD and treatment-refractory parosmia were randomized to: (1) ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin + olfactory training (OT) (umPEALUT group, n = 17), (2) alpha-lipoic acid + OT (ALA group, n = 21), (3) umPEALUT + ALA + OT (combination group, n = 28), or 4) olfactory training (OT) alone (control group, n = 23). Olfactory function was assessed at baseline (T0) and 6 months (T1) using a parosmia questionnaire and Sniffin’ Sticks test of odor threshold, detection, and identification (TDI). Analyses included one-way ANOVA for numeric data and Chi-Square analyses for nominal data on parosmia. Results: The umPEALUT group had the largest improvement in TDI scores (21.8 ± 9.4 to 29.7 ± 7.5) followed by the combination group (19.6 ± 6.29 to 27.5 ± 2.7), both p < 0.01. The control and ALA groups had no significant change. Patients in the combination and umPEALUT groups had significantly improved TDI scores compared to ALA and control groups (p < 0.001). Rates of parosmia resolution after 6 months were reported at 96% for combination, 65% for control, 53% for umPEALUT and 29% for ALA (p < 0.001). All treatment regimens were well-tolerated. Conclusions: umPEALUT and OT, with or without ALA, was associated with improvement in TDI scores and parosmia, whereas OT alone or OT with ALA were associated with little benefit.

Persistent COVID-19 parosmia and olfactory loss post olfactory training: randomized clinical trial comparing central and peripheral-acting therapeutics

Di Stadio A.
Conceptualization
2024-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: Although COVID-19 anosmia is often transient, patients with persistent olfactory dysfunction (pOD) can experience refractory parosmia and diminished smell. This study evaluated four putative therapies for parosmia in patients with chronic COVID-19 olfactory impairment. Methods: After screening nasal endoscopy, 85 patients (49 female, 58%) with pOD and treatment-refractory parosmia were randomized to: (1) ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin + olfactory training (OT) (umPEALUT group, n = 17), (2) alpha-lipoic acid + OT (ALA group, n = 21), (3) umPEALUT + ALA + OT (combination group, n = 28), or 4) olfactory training (OT) alone (control group, n = 23). Olfactory function was assessed at baseline (T0) and 6 months (T1) using a parosmia questionnaire and Sniffin’ Sticks test of odor threshold, detection, and identification (TDI). Analyses included one-way ANOVA for numeric data and Chi-Square analyses for nominal data on parosmia. Results: The umPEALUT group had the largest improvement in TDI scores (21.8 ± 9.4 to 29.7 ± 7.5) followed by the combination group (19.6 ± 6.29 to 27.5 ± 2.7), both p < 0.01. The control and ALA groups had no significant change. Patients in the combination and umPEALUT groups had significantly improved TDI scores compared to ALA and control groups (p < 0.001). Rates of parosmia resolution after 6 months were reported at 96% for combination, 65% for control, 53% for umPEALUT and 29% for ALA (p < 0.001). All treatment regimens were well-tolerated. Conclusions: umPEALUT and OT, with or without ALA, was associated with improvement in TDI scores and parosmia, whereas OT alone or OT with ALA were associated with little benefit.
2024
Alpha lipoic acid
Anosmia
Coronavirus long-COVID
Palmitoylethanolamide
Parosmia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/611229
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