Menopause is a cardiometabolic transition with many women experiencing weight gain and redistribution of body fat. Hormonal changes may affect also several dimensions of well-being, including sexual function, with a high rate of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), which displays a multifactorial etiology. The most important biological factors range from chronic low-grade inflammation, associated with hypertrophic adipocytes that may translate into endothelial dysfunction and compromised blood flow through the genitourinary system, to insulin resistance and other neuroendocrine mechanisms targeting the sexual response. Psychosocial factors include poor body image, mood disorders, low self-esteem and life satisfaction, as well as partner's health and quality of relationship, and social stigma. Even unhealthy lifestyle, chronic conditions and putative weight-promoting medications may play a role. The aim of the present narrative review is to update and summarize the state of the art on the link between obesity and FSD in postmenopausal women, pointing to the paucity of high-quality studies and the need for further research with validated end points to assess both biomarkers of obesity and FSD. In addition, we provide general information on the diagnosis and treatment of FSD at menopause with a focus on dietary interventions, physical activity, anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery.

Obesity and sexual health: focus on postmenopausal women

Barbagallo, F.;Calogero, A. E.;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Menopause is a cardiometabolic transition with many women experiencing weight gain and redistribution of body fat. Hormonal changes may affect also several dimensions of well-being, including sexual function, with a high rate of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), which displays a multifactorial etiology. The most important biological factors range from chronic low-grade inflammation, associated with hypertrophic adipocytes that may translate into endothelial dysfunction and compromised blood flow through the genitourinary system, to insulin resistance and other neuroendocrine mechanisms targeting the sexual response. Psychosocial factors include poor body image, mood disorders, low self-esteem and life satisfaction, as well as partner's health and quality of relationship, and social stigma. Even unhealthy lifestyle, chronic conditions and putative weight-promoting medications may play a role. The aim of the present narrative review is to update and summarize the state of the art on the link between obesity and FSD in postmenopausal women, pointing to the paucity of high-quality studies and the need for further research with validated end points to assess both biomarkers of obesity and FSD. In addition, we provide general information on the diagnosis and treatment of FSD at menopause with a focus on dietary interventions, physical activity, anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery.
2024
Sexual function
anti-obesity interventions
female sexual dysfunction
menopause
obesity
overweight
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/614630
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