Objective: To describe the techniques used for automatic landmarking of cephalograms, high-lighting the strengths and weaknesses of each one and reviewing the percentage of success in locating each cephalometric point. Materials and Methods: The literature survey was performed by searching the Medline, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the ISI Web of Science Citation Index databases. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to August 2006. Abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved. Their references were also hand-searched for possible missing articles. The search strategy resulted in 118 articles of which eight met the inclusion criteria. Many articles were rejected for different reasons; among these, the most frequent was that results of accuracy for automatic landmark recognition were presented as a percentage of success. Results: A marked difference in results was found between the included studies consisting of heterogeneity in the performance of techniques to detect the same landmark. All in all, hybrid approaches detected cephalometric points with a higher accuracy in contrast to the results for the same points obtained by the model-based, image filtering plus knowledge-based landmark search and "soft-computing" approaches. Conclusions: The systems described in the literature are not accurate enough to allow their use for clinical purposes. Errors in landmark detection were greater than those expected with manual tracing and, therefore, the scientific evidence supporting the use of automatic landmarking is low.
|Titolo:||Automatic Cephalometric Analysis: A Systematic Review|
|Autori interni:||GIORDANO, Daniela|
LEONARDI, Rosalia Maria
|Data di pubblicazione:||2008|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|