Carnosine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide composed of beta-alanine and L-histidine. It acts as a free radical scavenger and possesses antioxidant properties. Carnosine reduces proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-1, and TNF-alpha in different experimental settings. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of carnosine on the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Mice were subjected to intratracheal administration of bleomycin and were assigned to receive carnosine daily by an oral bolus of 150 mg/kg. One week after fibrosis induction, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and TGF-beta levels, lung histology, and immunohistochemical analyses for myeloperoxidase, TGF-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were performed. Finally, apoptosis was quantified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay. After bleomycin administration, carnosine- treated mice exhibited a reduced degree of lung damage and inflammation compared with wild-type mice, as shown by the reduction of 1) body weight, 2) mortality rate, 3) lung infiltration by neutrophils ( myeloperoxidase activity and BAL total and differential cell counts), 4) lung edema, 5) histological evidence of lung injury and collagen deposition, 6) lung myeloperoxidase, TGF-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase immunostaining, 7) BAL TGF-beta levels, and 8) apoptosis. Our results indicate that orally administered carnosine is able to prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury likely through its direct antioxidant properties. Carnosine is already available for human use. It might prove useful as an add-on therapy for the treatment of fibrotic disorders of the lung where oxidative stress plays a role, such as for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that still represents a major challenge to medical treatment.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.