Carnosine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide composed of beta-alanine and L-histidine. It acts as a free radical scavenger and possesses antioxidant properties. Carnosine reduces proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-1, and TNF-alpha in different experimental settings. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of carnosine on the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Mice were subjected to intratracheal administration of bleomycin and were assigned to receive carnosine daily by an oral bolus of 150 mg/kg. One week after fibrosis induction, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and TGF-beta levels, lung histology, and immunohistochemical analyses for myeloperoxidase, TGF-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were performed. Finally, apoptosis was quantified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay. After bleomycin administration, carnosine- treated mice exhibited a reduced degree of lung damage and inflammation compared with wild-type mice, as shown by the reduction of 1) body weight, 2) mortality rate, 3) lung infiltration by neutrophils ( myeloperoxidase activity and BAL total and differential cell counts), 4) lung edema, 5) histological evidence of lung injury and collagen deposition, 6) lung myeloperoxidase, TGF-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase immunostaining, 7) BAL TGF-beta levels, and 8) apoptosis. Our results indicate that orally administered carnosine is able to prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury likely through its direct antioxidant properties. Carnosine is already available for human use. It might prove useful as an add-on therapy for the treatment of fibrotic disorders of the lung where oxidative stress plays a role, such as for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that still represents a major challenge to medical treatment.

Protective effect of orally administered carnosine on bleomycin-induced lung injury

VECCHIO, Graziella;CRIMI, Nunzio;RIZZARELLI, Enrico;VANCHERI, CARLO
2007

Abstract

Carnosine is an endogenously synthesized dipeptide composed of beta-alanine and L-histidine. It acts as a free radical scavenger and possesses antioxidant properties. Carnosine reduces proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-1, and TNF-alpha in different experimental settings. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of carnosine on the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Mice were subjected to intratracheal administration of bleomycin and were assigned to receive carnosine daily by an oral bolus of 150 mg/kg. One week after fibrosis induction, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and TGF-beta levels, lung histology, and immunohistochemical analyses for myeloperoxidase, TGF-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were performed. Finally, apoptosis was quantified by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay. After bleomycin administration, carnosine- treated mice exhibited a reduced degree of lung damage and inflammation compared with wild-type mice, as shown by the reduction of 1) body weight, 2) mortality rate, 3) lung infiltration by neutrophils ( myeloperoxidase activity and BAL total and differential cell counts), 4) lung edema, 5) histological evidence of lung injury and collagen deposition, 6) lung myeloperoxidase, TGF-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase immunostaining, 7) BAL TGF-beta levels, and 8) apoptosis. Our results indicate that orally administered carnosine is able to prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury likely through its direct antioxidant properties. Carnosine is already available for human use. It might prove useful as an add-on therapy for the treatment of fibrotic disorders of the lung where oxidative stress plays a role, such as for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that still represents a major challenge to medical treatment.
lung fibrosis; oxidative stress; chelating agent
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/8407
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