The present research, continuing that reported in (CERRUTO E., Influence of Airflow Rate and Forward Speed on the Spray Deposit in Vineyards, Riv. di Ingegneria Agraria), deals with the spray application subject, so to investigate as volume rate and airflow rate, forward speed being equal, affect the foliar deposition in an espalier vineyard. Experimental trials were carried out by means of an air assisted towed sprayer, equipped with "Albuz ATR" nozzles. To take into account the influence of the development of the trees, the field trials were replicated in two phenological stages with an interval of about one month: "Inflorescences fully developed" (stage 1) and "Beginning of berry touch" (stage 2). A full factorial experiment was carried out for each growth stage, with two airflow rates (3.9 and 7.5 m3/s), three volume rates (103, 216, and 276 L/ha in the first growth stage and 154, 330 and 432 L/ha in the second growth stage), and four replicates, arranged according to a randomised complete block design. Working pressure (1.2 MPa) and forward speed (1.4 m/s) were kept unchanged for all the trials. The foliar deposition was measured by means of a spectrophotometric technique. The leaves were sampled on two depth layers and two or three heights, according to the trees’ development. The results showed that volume rate did not significantly influence the mean foliar deposition in both the two growth stages, while the highest deposits were obtained with the lowest airflow rate. The airflow rate x volume rate interaction, though not statistically significant, showed that low volume rates together with high airflow rates, result in a noticeable reduction in foliar deposition (29% with respect the grand mean), due to an increase of the spry drift, especially at the first growth stage, when the foliar development is little. These second tests, unlike those described in (CERRUTO E., Influence of Airflow Rate and Forward Speed on the Spray Deposit in Vineyards, Riv. di Ingegneria Agraria), did not show any positive influence of the airflow rate on the foliar deposition in the inner part of the canopy, so further investigations could be necessary to better understand the results. The whole results suggest to operate in field at low airflow rates (some 3.9 m3/s) and low volume rates (some 25 L/ha per active nozzle), so to reduce the power requirements and increase the promptness of intervention.
|Titolo:||Further Studies on the Variation of Spray Deposits in Vineyards with Airflow Rate and Volume Rate|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|