Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a constantly growing group of genetic defects of glycoprotein and glycolipid glycan synthesis. CDGs are usually multisystem diseases, and in the majority of patients, there is an important neurological involvement comprising psychomotor disability, hypotonia, ataxia, seizures, stroke-like episodes, and peripheral neuropathy. To assess the incidence, among early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs), of patients with identified congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs), we made a review of clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings of 27 CDG patients focusing on seizure onset, semiology and frequency, response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and early epileptic manifestations. Epilepsy was uncommon in PMM2-CDG (11%), while it was a main concern in other rare forms. We describe a series of patients with EOEE and genetically confirmed CDG (ALG3-CDG, ALG6-CDG, DPM2-CDG, ALG1-CDG). Epileptic seizures at onset included myoclonic and clonic fits and focal seizures. With time, patients developed recurrent and intractable seizures principally tonic–clonic seizures, infantile spasms, and myoclonic seizures. Electrophysiological correlates included focal and multifocal epileptic discharges, slowed background rhythm, and generalized epileptic activity including burst suppression pattern and status epilepticus. We propose a diagnostic flowchart for the early diagnosis of CDG in patients presenting with EOEE and suggest to perform serum transferrin IEF (or capillary zone electrophoresis) as a first-line screening in early-onset epilepsy.
|Titolo:||Electroclinical features of Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathies in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)|
|Autori interni:||FIUMARA, Agata|
BARONE, RITA MARIA ELISA
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|