Neurocutaneous disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions (mainly) affecting the skin [with pigmentary/vascular abnormalities and/or cutaneous tumours] and the central and peripheral nervous system [with congenital abnormalities and/or tumours]. In a number of such disorders, the skin abnormalities can assume a mosaic patterning (usually arranged in archetypical patterns). Alternating segments of affected and unaffected skin or segmentally arranged patterns of abnormal skin often mirror similar phenomena occurring in extra-cutaneous organs/tissues [eg, eye, bone, heart/vessels, lung, kidney and gut]. In some neurocutaneous syndromes the abnormal mosaic patterning involve mainly the skin and the nervous system configuring a (true) mosaic neurocutaneous disorder; or an ordinary trait of a neurocutaneous disorder is sometimes superimposed by a pronounced linear or otherwise segmental involve- ment; or, lastly, a neurocutaneous disorder can occur solely in a mosaic pattern. Recently, the molecular genetic and cellular bases of an increasing number of neurocutaneous disorders have been unravelled, shedding light on the interplays between common intra- and extra-neuronal signalling pathways encompassing receptor-protein and protein-to-protein cascades (eg, RAS, MAPK, mTOR, PI3K/AKT and GNAQ pathways), which are often responsible of the mosaic distribution of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features. In this article we will focus on the well known, and less defined mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and their related molecular/genetic bases, including the mosaic neurofibromatoses and their related forms (ie, spinal neuro- fibromatosis and schwannomatosis); Legius syndrome; segmental arrangements in tuberous sclerosis; Sturge-Weber and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes; microcephaly/megalencephaly-capil- lary malformation; blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; Wyburn-Mason syndrome; mixed vascular nevus syndrome; PHACE syndrome; Incontinentia pigmenti; pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type; neurocutaneous melanosis; cutis tricolor; speckled lentiginous syndrome; epidermal nevus syndromes; Becker’s nevus syndrome; phacomatosis pigmentovascularis and pigmentokerato- tica; Proteus syndrome; and encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis.

Mosaic neurocutaneous disorders and their causes

RUGGIERI, MARTINO;Praticò A.D.
2015-01-01

Abstract

Neurocutaneous disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions (mainly) affecting the skin [with pigmentary/vascular abnormalities and/or cutaneous tumours] and the central and peripheral nervous system [with congenital abnormalities and/or tumours]. In a number of such disorders, the skin abnormalities can assume a mosaic patterning (usually arranged in archetypical patterns). Alternating segments of affected and unaffected skin or segmentally arranged patterns of abnormal skin often mirror similar phenomena occurring in extra-cutaneous organs/tissues [eg, eye, bone, heart/vessels, lung, kidney and gut]. In some neurocutaneous syndromes the abnormal mosaic patterning involve mainly the skin and the nervous system configuring a (true) mosaic neurocutaneous disorder; or an ordinary trait of a neurocutaneous disorder is sometimes superimposed by a pronounced linear or otherwise segmental involve- ment; or, lastly, a neurocutaneous disorder can occur solely in a mosaic pattern. Recently, the molecular genetic and cellular bases of an increasing number of neurocutaneous disorders have been unravelled, shedding light on the interplays between common intra- and extra-neuronal signalling pathways encompassing receptor-protein and protein-to-protein cascades (eg, RAS, MAPK, mTOR, PI3K/AKT and GNAQ pathways), which are often responsible of the mosaic distribution of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features. In this article we will focus on the well known, and less defined mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and their related molecular/genetic bases, including the mosaic neurofibromatoses and their related forms (ie, spinal neuro- fibromatosis and schwannomatosis); Legius syndrome; segmental arrangements in tuberous sclerosis; Sturge-Weber and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes; microcephaly/megalencephaly-capil- lary malformation; blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; Wyburn-Mason syndrome; mixed vascular nevus syndrome; PHACE syndrome; Incontinentia pigmenti; pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type; neurocutaneous melanosis; cutis tricolor; speckled lentiginous syndrome; epidermal nevus syndromes; Becker’s nevus syndrome; phacomatosis pigmentovascularis and pigmentokerato- tica; Proteus syndrome; and encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/44395
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