Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. To date, most available drugs for treatment are toxic and beyond the economic means of those affected by the disease. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a chaperone protein that plays a major role in the folding of newly synthesized proteins, specifically assisting in disulfide bond formation, breakage, or rearrangement in all non-native proteins. In previous work, we demonstrated that Leishmania major PDI (LmPDI) has an essential role in pathogen virulence. Furthermore, inhibition of LmPDI further blocked parasite infection in macrophages. In this study, we utilized a computer-aided approach to design a series of LmPDI inhibitors. Fragment-based virtual screening allowed for the understanding of the inhibitors’ modes of action on LmPDI active sites. The generated compounds obtained after multiple rounds of virtual screening were synthesized and significantly inhibited target LmPDI reductase activity and were shown to decrease in vitro parasite growth in human monocyte-derived macrophages. This novel cheminformatics and synthetic approach led to the identification of a new series of compounds that might be optimized into novel drugs, likely more specific and less toxic for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

A computer-aided approach to identify novel Leishmania major protein disulfide isomerase inhibitors for treatment of leishmaniasis

Romeo G.;Intagliata S.;Salerno L.;Pittala V.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. To date, most available drugs for treatment are toxic and beyond the economic means of those affected by the disease. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a chaperone protein that plays a major role in the folding of newly synthesized proteins, specifically assisting in disulfide bond formation, breakage, or rearrangement in all non-native proteins. In previous work, we demonstrated that Leishmania major PDI (LmPDI) has an essential role in pathogen virulence. Furthermore, inhibition of LmPDI further blocked parasite infection in macrophages. In this study, we utilized a computer-aided approach to design a series of LmPDI inhibitors. Fragment-based virtual screening allowed for the understanding of the inhibitors’ modes of action on LmPDI active sites. The generated compounds obtained after multiple rounds of virtual screening were synthesized and significantly inhibited target LmPDI reductase activity and were shown to decrease in vitro parasite growth in human monocyte-derived macrophages. This novel cheminformatics and synthetic approach led to the identification of a new series of compounds that might be optimized into novel drugs, likely more specific and less toxic for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
Cheminformatics
Drug design
Hexachlorophene
Leishmania
Protein disulfide isomerase
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/510301
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