The biological activity of a molecular hybrid (DXNO-GR) joining doxorubicin (DOX) and an N-nitroso moiety releasing nitric oxide (NO) under irradiation with the biocompatible green light has been investigated against DOX-sensitive (MCF7) and -resistant (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells in vitro. DXNO-GR shows significantly higher cellular internalization than DOX in both cell lines and, in contrast to DOX, does not experience cell efflux in MDR overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells. The higher cellular internalization of the DXNO-GR hybrid seems to be mediated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a suitable carrier among serum proteins, according to the high binding constant measured for DXNO-GR, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than that reported for DOX. Despite the higher cellular accumulation, DXNO-GR is not toxic in the dark but induces remarkable cell death following photoactivation with green light. This lack of dark toxicity is strictly related to the different cellular compartmentalization of the molecular hybrid that, different from DOX, does not localize in the nucleus but is mainly confined in the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum and therefore does not act as a DNA intercalator. The photochemical properties of the hybrid are not affected by binding to BSA as demonstrated by the direct detection of NO photorelease, suggesting that the reduction of cell viability observed under light irradiation is a combined effect of DOX phototoxicity and NO release which, ultimately, inhibits MDR1 efflux pump in DOX-resistant cells.

Doxorubicin-NO Releaser Molecular Hybrid Activatable by Green Light to Overcome Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells

Parisi C.;Fraix A.;Failla M.;Sodano F.;Conte C.;Sortino S.
2022

Abstract

The biological activity of a molecular hybrid (DXNO-GR) joining doxorubicin (DOX) and an N-nitroso moiety releasing nitric oxide (NO) under irradiation with the biocompatible green light has been investigated against DOX-sensitive (MCF7) and -resistant (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells in vitro. DXNO-GR shows significantly higher cellular internalization than DOX in both cell lines and, in contrast to DOX, does not experience cell efflux in MDR overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells. The higher cellular internalization of the DXNO-GR hybrid seems to be mediated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a suitable carrier among serum proteins, according to the high binding constant measured for DXNO-GR, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than that reported for DOX. Despite the higher cellular accumulation, DXNO-GR is not toxic in the dark but induces remarkable cell death following photoactivation with green light. This lack of dark toxicity is strictly related to the different cellular compartmentalization of the molecular hybrid that, different from DOX, does not localize in the nucleus but is mainly confined in the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum and therefore does not act as a DNA intercalator. The photochemical properties of the hybrid are not affected by binding to BSA as demonstrated by the direct detection of NO photorelease, suggesting that the reduction of cell viability observed under light irradiation is a combined effect of DOX phototoxicity and NO release which, ultimately, inhibits MDR1 efflux pump in DOX-resistant cells.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/537959
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