Voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDAC) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Three isoforms are encoded by separate genes in mammals (VDAC1-3). These proteins play a crucial role in the cell, forming the primary interface between mitochondrial and cellular metabolisms. Research on the role of VDACs in the cell is a rapidly growing field, but the function of VDAC3 remains elusive. The high-sequence similarity between isoforms suggests a similar pore-forming structure. Electrophysiological analyzes revealed that VDAC3 works as a channel; however, its gating and regulation remain debated. A comparison between VDAC3 and VDAC1-2 underlines the presence of a higher number of cysteines in both isoforms 2 and 3. Recent mass spectrometry data demonstrated that the redox state of VDAC3 cysteines is evolutionarily conserved. Accordingly, these residues were always detected as totally reduced or partially oxidized, thus susceptible to disulfide exchange. The deletion of selected cysteines significantly influences the function of the channel. Some cysteine mutants of VDAC3 exhibited distinct kinetic behavior, conductance values and voltage dependence, suggesting that channel activity can be modulated by cysteine reduction/oxidation. These properties point to VDAC3 as a possible marker of redox signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about VDAC3 predicted structure, physiological role and regulation, and possible future directions in this research field.

Voltage-Dependent Anion Selective Channel 3: Unraveling Structural and Functional Features of the Least Known Porin Isoform

Reina, Simona
Primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2022

Abstract

Voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDAC) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Three isoforms are encoded by separate genes in mammals (VDAC1-3). These proteins play a crucial role in the cell, forming the primary interface between mitochondrial and cellular metabolisms. Research on the role of VDACs in the cell is a rapidly growing field, but the function of VDAC3 remains elusive. The high-sequence similarity between isoforms suggests a similar pore-forming structure. Electrophysiological analyzes revealed that VDAC3 works as a channel; however, its gating and regulation remain debated. A comparison between VDAC3 and VDAC1-2 underlines the presence of a higher number of cysteines in both isoforms 2 and 3. Recent mass spectrometry data demonstrated that the redox state of VDAC3 cysteines is evolutionarily conserved. Accordingly, these residues were always detected as totally reduced or partially oxidized, thus susceptible to disulfide exchange. The deletion of selected cysteines significantly influences the function of the channel. Some cysteine mutants of VDAC3 exhibited distinct kinetic behavior, conductance values and voltage dependence, suggesting that channel activity can be modulated by cysteine reduction/oxidation. These properties point to VDAC3 as a possible marker of redox signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about VDAC3 predicted structure, physiological role and regulation, and possible future directions in this research field.
VDAC3
electrophysiology
human pathologies
planar lipid bilayer
redox signaling
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/541519
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