We describe a 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed at birth with 18q de novo homogeneous deletion at G-banding karyotype. Her clinical condition, characterized by hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, short stature, deafness secondary to bilateral atresia of the external auditory canals, was in agreement with the 18q deletion syndrome though presence of coloboma of a single eye only suggested a mosaic condition as an unusual sign. By combining multiple technologies including array-CGH, FISH, and WGS, we found that the terminal deletion 18q21.32q23 (21 Mb) was in segmental mosaicism of the proximal region 18q21.31q21.32 (2.7 Mb), which showed a variable number of copies: one, two, or three, in 7, 41 and 55% of the cells respectively. Breakpoint junction analysis demonstrated the presence of an inv-dup del (18q) with a disomic segment of 4.7 kb between the inverted and non-inverted copies of the duplicated region 18q21.31q21.32. From these results, we propose that all three types of abnormal chr18 (the inv-dup del and the two 18q terminal deletions of different sizes) arisen from breaks in a dicentric mirror chromosome 18q, either in more than one embryo cell or from subsequent breaking-fusion-bridge cycles. The duplication region was with identical polymorphisms as in all non-recurrent inv-dup del rearrangements though, in contrast with most of them, the 18q abnormality was of maternal origin. Taking into account that distal 18q deletions are not rarely associated with inv-dup del(18q) cell lines, and that the non-disjunction of chromosome 18 takes place especially at maternal meiosis II rather than meiosis I, multiple rescue events starting from trisomic zygotes could be considered alternative to the postmitotic ones. From the clinical point of view, our case, as well as those of del(18q) in mosaic with the dic(18q), shows that the final phenotype is the sum of the different cell lines that acted on embryonic development with signs typical of both the 18q deletion syndrome and trisomy 18. Asymmetrical malformations, such as coloboma of the iris only in the right eye, confirm the underlying mosaicism regardless of whether it is still detectable in the blood.

Low-level complex mosaic with multiple cell lines affecting the 18q21.31q21.32 region in a patient with de novo 18q terminal deletion

Fichera, Marco;Zuffardi, Orsetta
2022

Abstract

We describe a 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed at birth with 18q de novo homogeneous deletion at G-banding karyotype. Her clinical condition, characterized by hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, short stature, deafness secondary to bilateral atresia of the external auditory canals, was in agreement with the 18q deletion syndrome though presence of coloboma of a single eye only suggested a mosaic condition as an unusual sign. By combining multiple technologies including array-CGH, FISH, and WGS, we found that the terminal deletion 18q21.32q23 (21 Mb) was in segmental mosaicism of the proximal region 18q21.31q21.32 (2.7 Mb), which showed a variable number of copies: one, two, or three, in 7, 41 and 55% of the cells respectively. Breakpoint junction analysis demonstrated the presence of an inv-dup del (18q) with a disomic segment of 4.7 kb between the inverted and non-inverted copies of the duplicated region 18q21.31q21.32. From these results, we propose that all three types of abnormal chr18 (the inv-dup del and the two 18q terminal deletions of different sizes) arisen from breaks in a dicentric mirror chromosome 18q, either in more than one embryo cell or from subsequent breaking-fusion-bridge cycles. The duplication region was with identical polymorphisms as in all non-recurrent inv-dup del rearrangements though, in contrast with most of them, the 18q abnormality was of maternal origin. Taking into account that distal 18q deletions are not rarely associated with inv-dup del(18q) cell lines, and that the non-disjunction of chromosome 18 takes place especially at maternal meiosis II rather than meiosis I, multiple rescue events starting from trisomic zygotes could be considered alternative to the postmitotic ones. From the clinical point of view, our case, as well as those of del(18q) in mosaic with the dic(18q), shows that the final phenotype is the sum of the different cell lines that acted on embryonic development with signs typical of both the 18q deletion syndrome and trisomy 18. Asymmetrical malformations, such as coloboma of the iris only in the right eye, confirm the underlying mosaicism regardless of whether it is still detectable in the blood.
18q deletion
Coloboma
Dicentric chromosome
Genotype-phenotype
Inverted duplication deletion
Trisomy 18
Cell Line
Chromosome Deletion
Chromosome Disorders
Chromosome Inversion
Dacarbazine
Female
Humans
Mosaicism
Pregnancy
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18
Coloboma
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/541819
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