Peripheral nerve sheath tumors encompass a wide spectrum of lesions with different biological behavior, including both benign and malignant neoplasms as well as the recent diagnostic category, i.e., "atypical neurofibromatous neoplasm with uncertain biologic potential" to be used only for NF1 patients. Neurofibromas and schwannomas are benign Schwann-cell-derived peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising as isolated lesions or within the context of classical neurofibromatosis or schwannomatoses. Multiple tumors are a hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) and related forms, NF2-related-schwannomatosis (formerly NF2) or SMARCB1/LZTR1-related schwannomatoses. Perineuriomas are benign, mostly sporadic, peripheral nerve sheath tumors that show morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features reminiscent of perineurial differentiation. Hybrid tumors exist, with the most common lesions represented by a variable mixture of neurofibromas, schwannomas, and perineuriomas. Conversely, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are soft tissue sarcomas that may arise from a peripheral nerve or a pre-existing neurofibroma, and in about 50% of cases, these tumors are associated with NF1. The present review emphasizes the main clinicopathologic features of each pathological entity, focusing on the diagnostic clues and unusual morphological variants.

Practical Approach to Histological Diagnosis of Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: An Update

Gaetano Magro
;
Giuseppe Broggi;Giuseppe Angelico;Lidia Puzzo;Giada Maria Vecchio;Lucia Salvatorelli;Martino Ruggieri
2022

Abstract

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors encompass a wide spectrum of lesions with different biological behavior, including both benign and malignant neoplasms as well as the recent diagnostic category, i.e., "atypical neurofibromatous neoplasm with uncertain biologic potential" to be used only for NF1 patients. Neurofibromas and schwannomas are benign Schwann-cell-derived peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising as isolated lesions or within the context of classical neurofibromatosis or schwannomatoses. Multiple tumors are a hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) and related forms, NF2-related-schwannomatosis (formerly NF2) or SMARCB1/LZTR1-related schwannomatoses. Perineuriomas are benign, mostly sporadic, peripheral nerve sheath tumors that show morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features reminiscent of perineurial differentiation. Hybrid tumors exist, with the most common lesions represented by a variable mixture of neurofibromas, schwannomas, and perineuriomas. Conversely, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are soft tissue sarcomas that may arise from a peripheral nerve or a pre-existing neurofibroma, and in about 50% of cases, these tumors are associated with NF1. The present review emphasizes the main clinicopathologic features of each pathological entity, focusing on the diagnostic clues and unusual morphological variants.
neurofibroma; neurofibromatosis type 1; neurofibromatosis type 2; perineurioma; peripheral nerve sheath tumors; schwannoma; schwannomatosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/541820
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