Background: Neuroblastic tumors (NBTs) are the most common extra-cranial solid tumors of childhood. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous disorder with a predisposition to tumors. The co-occurrence of NBTs in the setting of NF1 has been occasionally reported, suggesting a non-casual association and likely configuring a spectrum of neural crest–derived disorders. Aim of the study: To explore the occurrence of NBTs within NF1 and to report on its natural history, therapeutic strategies, and outcomes in an Italian cohort of children with NF1 and in the literature. Subjects and Methods: Study (a): a retrospective analysis of questionnaire-based data [years 1979–2017] derived from the databases of the Italian Registry for Neuroblastoma (RINB) of the Italian Society of Pediatric Onco-Haematology (AIEOP); and Study (b): a systematic review search on NF1/NB co-occurrence. Results: Study (a) identified eight children with NBTs, 0.2% of patients registered in the RINB, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for NF1. The primary site of NBTs was abdominal in six patients. The NBTs were neuroblastoma (NB) in five patients, ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) in one, patient, and ganglioneuroma (GN) in two. Metastatic diffusion occurred in three out of eight children. MYCN gene testing, performed in the tumors of five patients, resulted not-amplified. The major features of NF1 included the following: NF1 family history in four patients, café-au-lait spots in all, freckling in six, Lisch nodules in three, and neurofibromas in three. With regard to the outcome, four children survived three of these for the progression of NB and one for a second tumor. Study (b) identified 12 patients with NF1/NB from the years 1966–2017, and the median age at diagnosis was 27 months (range = 0–168 months). The primary site of NB was thoracic. The prevalent histotype was NB in nine patients, GNB in two, and GN in one. Eight/nine NBs were metastatic. The MYCN gene was amplified in the only studied case. The NF1 features included NF1 family history in seven patients; the major NF1 features were café-au-lait spots in nine patients, freckling in one, Lisch nodules in none, and neurofibromas in six. The outcome was good for only two children, while eight children died of neuroblastoma, at a median age of 49.5 months (range = 2.4–174 months), with a median survival time of 21.75 months after diagnosis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study on the occurrence of NBTs in NF1. This confirms that NBs are rare per se in the setting of NF1 (0.2% of all NBs) and even if compared to the overall frequency of malignancies in NF1 (i.e., 14.7%). The male:female ratio in study (a) (0.6) was different from what was recorded in study (b) (1.5) and in line with the overall increased frequency of malignancies in females with NF1. The median ages at diagnosis of NB in either study (a) or (b) were concordant with what occurred in the NB population. In study (a) versus study (b), the frequency of metastatic diffusion was lower, likely indicating less awareness on work-ups for malignancies in old NF1 series in the literature. The outcome was much better in study (a) than in study (b), indicating that multidisciplinary treatment for NB is highly recommended.

Neuroblastic tumors and neurofibromatosis type 1: A retrospective multicenter study in Italy and systematic review of the literature

Puglisi F.
Primo
;
Soma R.;Meli M.
;
Russo G.;Pulvirenti A.;Ruggieri M.;Di Cataldo A.
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Neuroblastic tumors (NBTs) are the most common extra-cranial solid tumors of childhood. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous disorder with a predisposition to tumors. The co-occurrence of NBTs in the setting of NF1 has been occasionally reported, suggesting a non-casual association and likely configuring a spectrum of neural crest–derived disorders. Aim of the study: To explore the occurrence of NBTs within NF1 and to report on its natural history, therapeutic strategies, and outcomes in an Italian cohort of children with NF1 and in the literature. Subjects and Methods: Study (a): a retrospective analysis of questionnaire-based data [years 1979–2017] derived from the databases of the Italian Registry for Neuroblastoma (RINB) of the Italian Society of Pediatric Onco-Haematology (AIEOP); and Study (b): a systematic review search on NF1/NB co-occurrence. Results: Study (a) identified eight children with NBTs, 0.2% of patients registered in the RINB, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for NF1. The primary site of NBTs was abdominal in six patients. The NBTs were neuroblastoma (NB) in five patients, ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) in one, patient, and ganglioneuroma (GN) in two. Metastatic diffusion occurred in three out of eight children. MYCN gene testing, performed in the tumors of five patients, resulted not-amplified. The major features of NF1 included the following: NF1 family history in four patients, café-au-lait spots in all, freckling in six, Lisch nodules in three, and neurofibromas in three. With regard to the outcome, four children survived three of these for the progression of NB and one for a second tumor. Study (b) identified 12 patients with NF1/NB from the years 1966–2017, and the median age at diagnosis was 27 months (range = 0–168 months). The primary site of NB was thoracic. The prevalent histotype was NB in nine patients, GNB in two, and GN in one. Eight/nine NBs were metastatic. The MYCN gene was amplified in the only studied case. The NF1 features included NF1 family history in seven patients; the major NF1 features were café-au-lait spots in nine patients, freckling in one, Lisch nodules in none, and neurofibromas in six. The outcome was good for only two children, while eight children died of neuroblastoma, at a median age of 49.5 months (range = 2.4–174 months), with a median survival time of 21.75 months after diagnosis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study on the occurrence of NBTs in NF1. This confirms that NBs are rare per se in the setting of NF1 (0.2% of all NBs) and even if compared to the overall frequency of malignancies in NF1 (i.e., 14.7%). The male:female ratio in study (a) (0.6) was different from what was recorded in study (b) (1.5) and in line with the overall increased frequency of malignancies in females with NF1. The median ages at diagnosis of NB in either study (a) or (b) were concordant with what occurred in the NB population. In study (a) versus study (b), the frequency of metastatic diffusion was lower, likely indicating less awareness on work-ups for malignancies in old NF1 series in the literature. The outcome was much better in study (a) than in study (b), indicating that multidisciplinary treatment for NB is highly recommended.
cancer
child
neuroblastoma
neurofibromatosis type 1
NF1
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542621
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