OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between adhesive capsulitis (AC) and a specific psychological profile. METHODS: We assessed 72 patients with phase-II AC. In our study, 36 patients were affected by primary disease and 36 by secondary disease. The inclusion criteria were as follows: unilateral AC and pain in the shoulder for at least two months. The exclusion criteria were: psychiatric and neurological manifestations with a previous diagnosis and inability to comprehend the instruments. Outcomes were determined at 52 weeks. Shoulder pain severity was assessed with the Visual Analog Scale. We also measured the range of motion with a universal goniometer and the strength with the Medical Research Council. We assessed the personality traits of our patients with the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. RESULTS: Patients with primary AC needed more time to improve the symptomatology compared to the group with the secondary disease (p<0.01). Patients with primary AC complained of severe and lasting pain more frequently than patients with the secondary disease (p< 0.01). In patients with primary disease, the prevalence of perfectionism, low levels of novelty seeking, and high levels of harm avoidance were 88.2 and 86.2%, and 80.4, respectively, and below 20 percent in patients with secondary AC disease. CONCLUSION: We found a significant correlation between primary AC and particular personality traits, indicating an interaction between psychological and somatic factors.
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