Activin receptor type I (ACVR1) is a transmembrane kinase receptor belonging to bone morphogenic protein receptors (BMPs). ACVR1 plays an important role in hematopoiesis and anemia via the BMP6/ACVR1/SMAD pathway, which regulates expression of hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Elevated hepcidin levels are inversely associated with plasma iron levels, and chronic hepcidin expression leads to iron-restricted anemia. Anemia is one of the hallmarks of myelofibrosis (MF), a bone marrow (BM) malignancy characterized by BM scarring resulting in impaired hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, and systemic symptoms. Anemia and red blood cell transfusions negatively impact MF prognosis. Among the approved JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib, fedratinib, momelotinib, and pacritinib) for MF, momelotinib and pacritinib are preferably used in cytopenic patients; both agents are potent ACVR1 inhibitors that suppress hepcidin expression via the BMP6/ACVR1/SMAD pathway and restore iron homeostasis/erythropoiesis. In September 2023, momelotinib was approved as a treatment for patients with MF and anemia. Zilurgisertib (ACVR1 inhibitor) and DISC-0974 (anti-hemojuvelin monoclonal antibody) are evaluated in early phase clinical trials in patients with MF and anemia. Luspatercept (ACVR2B ligand trap) is assessed in transfusion-dependent MF patients in a registrational phase 3 trial. Approved ACVR1 inhibitors and novel agents in development are poised to improve the outcomes of anemic MF patients.

ACVR1: A Novel Therapeutic Target to Treat Anemia in Myelofibrosis

Duminuco A.
Primo
;
Giallongo S.;Giallongo C.;Tibullo D.;Palumbo G. A.
Ultimo
2024-01-01

Abstract

Activin receptor type I (ACVR1) is a transmembrane kinase receptor belonging to bone morphogenic protein receptors (BMPs). ACVR1 plays an important role in hematopoiesis and anemia via the BMP6/ACVR1/SMAD pathway, which regulates expression of hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Elevated hepcidin levels are inversely associated with plasma iron levels, and chronic hepcidin expression leads to iron-restricted anemia. Anemia is one of the hallmarks of myelofibrosis (MF), a bone marrow (BM) malignancy characterized by BM scarring resulting in impaired hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, and systemic symptoms. Anemia and red blood cell transfusions negatively impact MF prognosis. Among the approved JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib, fedratinib, momelotinib, and pacritinib) for MF, momelotinib and pacritinib are preferably used in cytopenic patients; both agents are potent ACVR1 inhibitors that suppress hepcidin expression via the BMP6/ACVR1/SMAD pathway and restore iron homeostasis/erythropoiesis. In September 2023, momelotinib was approved as a treatment for patients with MF and anemia. Zilurgisertib (ACVR1 inhibitor) and DISC-0974 (anti-hemojuvelin monoclonal antibody) are evaluated in early phase clinical trials in patients with MF and anemia. Luspatercept (ACVR2B ligand trap) is assessed in transfusion-dependent MF patients in a registrational phase 3 trial. Approved ACVR1 inhibitors and novel agents in development are poised to improve the outcomes of anemic MF patients.
2024
ACVR1
ACVR1 inhibitor
anemia
hepcidin
JAK inhibitor
momelotinib
myelofibrosis
myeloproliferative neoplasms
pacritinib
ruxolitinib
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/589436
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