Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently constrained by limited clinical treatment options. The initial pathophysiological event, which can be traced back to decades before the clinical symptoms become apparent, involves the excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (A beta), a peptide comprised of 40-42 amino acids, in extraneuronal plaques within the brain. Biochemical and histological studies have shown that overaccumulation of A beta instigates an aberrant escalation in the phosphorylation and secretion of tau, a microtubule-binding axonal protein. The accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau into intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles is in turn correlated with microglial dysfunction and reactive astrocytosis, culminating in synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. As neurodegeneration progresses, it gives rise to mild clinical symptoms of AD, which may eventually evolve into overt dementia. Synaptic loss in AD may develop even before tau alteration and in response to possible elevations in soluble oligomeric forms of A beta associated with early AD. These findings largely rely on post-mortem autopsy examinations, which typically involve a limited number of patients. Over the past decade, a range of fluid biomarkers such as neurogranin, alpha-synuclein, visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), neuronal pentraxin 2, and beta-synuclein, along with positron emission tomography (PET) markers like synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, have been developed. These advancements have facilitated the exploration of how synaptic markers in AD patients correlate with cognitive impairment. However, fluid biomarkers indicating synaptic loss have only been validated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not in plasma, with the exception of VILIP-1. The most promising PET radiotracer, [11C]UCB-J, currently faces significant challenges hindering its widespread clinical use, primarily due to the necessity of a cyclotron. As such, additional research geared toward the exploration of synaptic pathology biomarkers is crucial. This will not only enable their extensive clinical application, but also refine the optimization process of AD pharmacological trials.

Monitoring synaptic pathology in Alzheimer's disease through fluid and PET imaging biomarkers: a comprehensive review and future perspectives

Lista, Simone;Caraci, Filippo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently constrained by limited clinical treatment options. The initial pathophysiological event, which can be traced back to decades before the clinical symptoms become apparent, involves the excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (A beta), a peptide comprised of 40-42 amino acids, in extraneuronal plaques within the brain. Biochemical and histological studies have shown that overaccumulation of A beta instigates an aberrant escalation in the phosphorylation and secretion of tau, a microtubule-binding axonal protein. The accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau into intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles is in turn correlated with microglial dysfunction and reactive astrocytosis, culminating in synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. As neurodegeneration progresses, it gives rise to mild clinical symptoms of AD, which may eventually evolve into overt dementia. Synaptic loss in AD may develop even before tau alteration and in response to possible elevations in soluble oligomeric forms of A beta associated with early AD. These findings largely rely on post-mortem autopsy examinations, which typically involve a limited number of patients. Over the past decade, a range of fluid biomarkers such as neurogranin, alpha-synuclein, visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), neuronal pentraxin 2, and beta-synuclein, along with positron emission tomography (PET) markers like synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, have been developed. These advancements have facilitated the exploration of how synaptic markers in AD patients correlate with cognitive impairment. However, fluid biomarkers indicating synaptic loss have only been validated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not in plasma, with the exception of VILIP-1. The most promising PET radiotracer, [11C]UCB-J, currently faces significant challenges hindering its widespread clinical use, primarily due to the necessity of a cyclotron. As such, additional research geared toward the exploration of synaptic pathology biomarkers is crucial. This will not only enable their extensive clinical application, but also refine the optimization process of AD pharmacological trials.
2024
Alzheimer, biomarkers, early diagnosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/591698
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