: The quantification of stenosis severity from X-ray catheter angiography is a challenging task. Indeed, this requires to fully understand the lesion's geometry by analyzing dynamics of the contrast material, only relying on visual observation by clinicians. To support decision making for cardiac intervention, we propose a hybrid CNN-Transformer model for the assessment of angiography-based non-invasive fractional flow-reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) of intermediate coronary stenosis. Our approach predicts whether a coronary artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant and provides direct FFR and iFR estimates. This is achieved through a combination of regression and classification branches that forces the model to focus on the cut-off region of FFR (around 0.8 FFR value), which is highly critical for decision-making. We also propose a spatio-temporal factorization mechanisms that redesigns the transformer's self-attention mechanism to capture both local spatial and temporal interactions between vessel geometry, blood flow dynamics, and lesion morphology. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on a dataset of 778 exams from 389 patients. Unlike existing methods, our approach employs a single angiography view and does not require knowledge of the key frame; supervision at training time is provided by a classification loss (based on a threshold of the FFR/iFR values) and a regression loss for direct estimation. Finally, the analysis of model interpretability and calibration shows that, in spite of the complexity of angiographic imaging data, our method can robustly identify the location of the stenosis and correlate prediction uncertainty to the provided output scores.

A Convolutional-Transformer Model for FFR and iFR Assessment from Coronary Angiography

R. Mineo;F. Proietto Salanitri;G. Bellitto;I. Kavasidis;M. Aldinucci;D. Giordano;S. Palazzo;C. Spampinato
2024-01-01

Abstract

: The quantification of stenosis severity from X-ray catheter angiography is a challenging task. Indeed, this requires to fully understand the lesion's geometry by analyzing dynamics of the contrast material, only relying on visual observation by clinicians. To support decision making for cardiac intervention, we propose a hybrid CNN-Transformer model for the assessment of angiography-based non-invasive fractional flow-reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) of intermediate coronary stenosis. Our approach predicts whether a coronary artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant and provides direct FFR and iFR estimates. This is achieved through a combination of regression and classification branches that forces the model to focus on the cut-off region of FFR (around 0.8 FFR value), which is highly critical for decision-making. We also propose a spatio-temporal factorization mechanisms that redesigns the transformer's self-attention mechanism to capture both local spatial and temporal interactions between vessel geometry, blood flow dynamics, and lesion morphology. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on a dataset of 778 exams from 389 patients. Unlike existing methods, our approach employs a single angiography view and does not require knowledge of the key frame; supervision at training time is provided by a classification loss (based on a threshold of the FFR/iFR values) and a regression loss for direct estimation. Finally, the analysis of model interpretability and calibration shows that, in spite of the complexity of angiographic imaging data, our method can robustly identify the location of the stenosis and correlate prediction uncertainty to the provided output scores.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/622649
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