Child abuse is a critical social issue. The orthopedic surgeon’s role is essential in noticing signs and symptoms of physical abuse. For this reason, several authors have proposed scoring systems to identify abuse early on and reduce undiagnosed cases. The aim of this systematic review is to overview the screening tools in the literature. In 2021, three independent authors performed a systematic review of two electronic medical databases using the following inclusion criteria: physical child abuse, questionnaire, survey, score, screening tool and predictive tool. Patients who had experienced sexual abuse or emotional abuse were excluded. The risk of bias evaluation of the articles was performed according to the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale Cohort Studies. Any evidence-level study reporting clinical data and dealing with a physical child abuse diagnosis tool was considered. A total of 217 articles were found. After reading the full texts and checking the reference lists, n = 12 (71,035 patients) articles were selected. A total of seven screening tools were found. However, only some of the seven diagnostic tools included demonstrated a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. The main limits of the studies were the lack of heterogeneity of evidence and samples and the lack of common assessing tools. Despite the multiplicity of questionnaires aimed at detecting validated child abuse, there was not a single worldwide questionnaire for early diagnosis. A combination of more than one test might increase the validity of the investigation.

Diagnostic Tools in the Detection of Physical Child Abuse: A Systematic Review

Pavone V.;Vescio A.;Lucenti L.;Amico M.;Caldaci A.;Pappalardo X. G.;Parano E.;Testa G.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Child abuse is a critical social issue. The orthopedic surgeon’s role is essential in noticing signs and symptoms of physical abuse. For this reason, several authors have proposed scoring systems to identify abuse early on and reduce undiagnosed cases. The aim of this systematic review is to overview the screening tools in the literature. In 2021, three independent authors performed a systematic review of two electronic medical databases using the following inclusion criteria: physical child abuse, questionnaire, survey, score, screening tool and predictive tool. Patients who had experienced sexual abuse or emotional abuse were excluded. The risk of bias evaluation of the articles was performed according to the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale Cohort Studies. Any evidence-level study reporting clinical data and dealing with a physical child abuse diagnosis tool was considered. A total of 217 articles were found. After reading the full texts and checking the reference lists, n = 12 (71,035 patients) articles were selected. A total of seven screening tools were found. However, only some of the seven diagnostic tools included demonstrated a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. The main limits of the studies were the lack of heterogeneity of evidence and samples and the lack of common assessing tools. Despite the multiplicity of questionnaires aimed at detecting validated child abuse, there was not a single worldwide questionnaire for early diagnosis. A combination of more than one test might increase the validity of the investigation.
abuse
child
maltreatment
neglect
orthopedic
physical
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/543583
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