Neonatal seizures (NS) occur in the first 28 days of life; they represent an important emergency that requires a rapid diagnostic work-up to start a prompt therapy. The most common causes of NS include: intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, electrolyte imbalance, neonatal stroke or central nervous system infection. Nevertheless, an Inborn Error of Metabolism (IEM) should be suspected in case of NS especially if these are resistant to common antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and with metabolic decompensation. Nowadays, Expanded Newborn Screening (ENS) has changed the natural history of some IEMs allowing a rapid diagnosis and a prompt onset of specific therapy; nevertheless, not all IEMs are detected by such screening (e.g. Molybdenum-Cofactor Deficiency, Hypophosphatasia, GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome) and for this reason neonatologists have to screen for these diseases in the diagnostic work-up of NS. For IEMs, there are not specific semiology of seizures and EEG patterns. Herein, we report a systematic review on those IEMs that lead to NS and epilepsy in the neonatal period, studying only those IEMs not included in the ENS with tandem mass, suggesting clinical, biochemical features, and diagnostic work-up. Remarkably, we have observed a worse neurological outcome in infants undergoing only a treatment with common AED for their seizures, in comparison to those primarily treated with specific anti-convulsant treatment for the underlying metabolic disease (e.g.Ketogenic Diet, B6 vitamin). For this reason, we underline the importance of an early diagnosis in order to promptly intervene with a targeted treatment without waiting for drug resistance to arise.

Neonatal seizures as onset of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs): from diagnosis to treatment. A systematic review

Falsaperla R.;Sciuto L.;Sciuto S.;Pratico A. D.;Ruggieri M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Neonatal seizures (NS) occur in the first 28 days of life; they represent an important emergency that requires a rapid diagnostic work-up to start a prompt therapy. The most common causes of NS include: intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, electrolyte imbalance, neonatal stroke or central nervous system infection. Nevertheless, an Inborn Error of Metabolism (IEM) should be suspected in case of NS especially if these are resistant to common antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and with metabolic decompensation. Nowadays, Expanded Newborn Screening (ENS) has changed the natural history of some IEMs allowing a rapid diagnosis and a prompt onset of specific therapy; nevertheless, not all IEMs are detected by such screening (e.g. Molybdenum-Cofactor Deficiency, Hypophosphatasia, GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome) and for this reason neonatologists have to screen for these diseases in the diagnostic work-up of NS. For IEMs, there are not specific semiology of seizures and EEG patterns. Herein, we report a systematic review on those IEMs that lead to NS and epilepsy in the neonatal period, studying only those IEMs not included in the ENS with tandem mass, suggesting clinical, biochemical features, and diagnostic work-up. Remarkably, we have observed a worse neurological outcome in infants undergoing only a treatment with common AED for their seizures, in comparison to those primarily treated with specific anti-convulsant treatment for the underlying metabolic disease (e.g.Ketogenic Diet, B6 vitamin). For this reason, we underline the importance of an early diagnosis in order to promptly intervene with a targeted treatment without waiting for drug resistance to arise.
2021
Inborn errors of metabolism
Neonatal seizures
Neonate
Seizures
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Falsaperla_Neonatal seizures as onset of Inborn Errors of Metabolism_2021.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.09 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.09 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/548581
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 4
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 5
social impact