: 'Violetto di Ramacca' is a local variety of artichoke grown in Sicily (Southern Italy), known for its purple color with green streaks. In this study, the effects of two different preparation and drying methods (method A, fresh sample oven-dried at 40 °C for 48 h then mixed and ground into flour; and B, minced and frozen sample oven-dried at 40 °C for 24 h then blended and ground into flour) for flours from different parts of the artichoke (bracts, stems, and mix), used at different percentages of integration (5, 7.5, and 10%), in combination with re-milled semolina, have been evaluated. The polyphenol contents of the flours produced with the two methods were measured. The results showed significant differences between the methods and samples, with a range from 9.09 mg GAE/g d.m. (bracts 100%, method A) to 2.62 mg/g (mix 100%, method B). The values were then lowered in the flour products with supplements ranging from 0.96 mg GAE/g (bract flour 10%, method A) to 0.11 mg GAE/g (mixed flour 7.5%, method B). As the amounts of polyphenols increased, the antioxidant activity increased, with a range that varied in the pure flour from 8.59 mg trolox eq/g d.m. (bract flour, method A) to 3.83 mg trolox eq/g d.m. (mixed flour, method B). These flours were also analyzed for color, highlighting a clear difference between methods A (greener) and B (browner). The flours thus obtained were used to produce breads, which were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics during 4 days of storage. The results showed a reduction in volumes and heights, an increase in the percentage of integration of the artichoke flours, a greater quantity of moisture in the integrated breads, and a lower reduction in the structural characteristics during storage compared to the control breads. The TPA was conducted on the breads from T0 to T4, highlighting that, although initially more compact, the integrated breads offered less alteration of the values during storage. The aw ranged from 0.63 (mix flour 5%, method B) to 0.90 (bract flour 5%, method B). The amounts of polyphenols (from 0.57 mg GAE/g in bread with bracts at 10% (method A) to 0.13 mg GAE/g in bread with mix 5% (method B)) and the antioxidant activity (from 0.55 mg trolox eq/g d.m. in bread with bract flour 10% (method A) to 0.14% mg trolox eq/g d.m. in bread with mix flour) were also evaluated, showing a trend similar to the values obtained in the flours. Colorimetric tests highlighted a color more similar to wholemeal bread in the loaves produced with method B. Statistical factor analysis and cluster analysis were conducted for all trials.

Artichoke Industrial Waste in Durum Wheat Bread: Effects of Two Different Preparation and Drying Methods of Flours and Evaluation of Quality Parameters during Short Storage

Palmeri R.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: 'Violetto di Ramacca' is a local variety of artichoke grown in Sicily (Southern Italy), known for its purple color with green streaks. In this study, the effects of two different preparation and drying methods (method A, fresh sample oven-dried at 40 °C for 48 h then mixed and ground into flour; and B, minced and frozen sample oven-dried at 40 °C for 24 h then blended and ground into flour) for flours from different parts of the artichoke (bracts, stems, and mix), used at different percentages of integration (5, 7.5, and 10%), in combination with re-milled semolina, have been evaluated. The polyphenol contents of the flours produced with the two methods were measured. The results showed significant differences between the methods and samples, with a range from 9.09 mg GAE/g d.m. (bracts 100%, method A) to 2.62 mg/g (mix 100%, method B). The values were then lowered in the flour products with supplements ranging from 0.96 mg GAE/g (bract flour 10%, method A) to 0.11 mg GAE/g (mixed flour 7.5%, method B). As the amounts of polyphenols increased, the antioxidant activity increased, with a range that varied in the pure flour from 8.59 mg trolox eq/g d.m. (bract flour, method A) to 3.83 mg trolox eq/g d.m. (mixed flour, method B). These flours were also analyzed for color, highlighting a clear difference between methods A (greener) and B (browner). The flours thus obtained were used to produce breads, which were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics during 4 days of storage. The results showed a reduction in volumes and heights, an increase in the percentage of integration of the artichoke flours, a greater quantity of moisture in the integrated breads, and a lower reduction in the structural characteristics during storage compared to the control breads. The TPA was conducted on the breads from T0 to T4, highlighting that, although initially more compact, the integrated breads offered less alteration of the values during storage. The aw ranged from 0.63 (mix flour 5%, method B) to 0.90 (bract flour 5%, method B). The amounts of polyphenols (from 0.57 mg GAE/g in bread with bracts at 10% (method A) to 0.13 mg GAE/g in bread with mix 5% (method B)) and the antioxidant activity (from 0.55 mg trolox eq/g d.m. in bread with bract flour 10% (method A) to 0.14% mg trolox eq/g d.m. in bread with mix flour) were also evaluated, showing a trend similar to the values obtained in the flours. Colorimetric tests highlighted a color more similar to wholemeal bread in the loaves produced with method B. Statistical factor analysis and cluster analysis were conducted for all trials.
2023
Cynara scolymus
artichoke flour
durum wheat
functional bread
polyphenols
staling process
sustainability
texture profile analysis
upcycling
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/575269
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