Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are involved in heme catabolism and several physiological functions. Among the different HO isoforms, HO-2 stands out for its neuroprotective properties and modulatory activity in male reproduction. However, unlike the HO-1 ligands, the potential therapeutic applications of HO-2 inhibitors/activators have not been extensively explored yet. Moreover, the physiological role of HO-2 is still unclear, mostly due to the lack of highly selective HO-2 chemical probes. To boost the interest on this intriguing target, the present review updates the knowledge on the structure-activity relationships of HO-2 inhibitors and activators, as well as their potential therapeutic applications. To the best of our knowledge, among HO-2 inhibitors, clemizole derivatives are the most selective HO-2 inhibitors reported so far (IC50 HO-1 >100 μM, IC50 HO-2 = 3.4 μM), while the HO-2 nonselective inhibitors described herein possess IC50 HO-2 values ≤ 10 μM. Furthermore, the development of HO-2 activators, such as menadione analogues, helped to understand the critical moieties required for HO-2 activation. Recent advances in the potential therapeutic applications of HO-2 inhibitors/activators cover the fields of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and reproductive diseases further stimulating the interest towards this target.

Heme Oxygenase-2 (HO-2) as a therapeutic target: Activators and inhibitors

Intagliata Sebastiano;Salerno Loredana
;
Ciaffaglione Valeria;Fallica Antonino Nicolo';Carota Giuseppe;Amata Emanuele;Marrazzo Agostino;Pittalà Valeria
;
Romeo Giuseppe
2019-01-01

Abstract

Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are involved in heme catabolism and several physiological functions. Among the different HO isoforms, HO-2 stands out for its neuroprotective properties and modulatory activity in male reproduction. However, unlike the HO-1 ligands, the potential therapeutic applications of HO-2 inhibitors/activators have not been extensively explored yet. Moreover, the physiological role of HO-2 is still unclear, mostly due to the lack of highly selective HO-2 chemical probes. To boost the interest on this intriguing target, the present review updates the knowledge on the structure-activity relationships of HO-2 inhibitors and activators, as well as their potential therapeutic applications. To the best of our knowledge, among HO-2 inhibitors, clemizole derivatives are the most selective HO-2 inhibitors reported so far (IC50 HO-1 >100 μM, IC50 HO-2 = 3.4 μM), while the HO-2 nonselective inhibitors described herein possess IC50 HO-2 values ≤ 10 μM. Furthermore, the development of HO-2 activators, such as menadione analogues, helped to understand the critical moieties required for HO-2 activation. Recent advances in the potential therapeutic applications of HO-2 inhibitors/activators cover the fields of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and reproductive diseases further stimulating the interest towards this target.
2019
Activators; Azalanstat; Clemizole; Heme oxygenase-1; Heme oxygenase-2; Imidazole derivatives; Structure-activity relationships; Animals; Benzimidazoles; Enzyme Inhibitors; Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing); Humans; Molecular Structure; Vitamin K 3
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/374181
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